What is CFD? Final Year Projects on CFD


The biggest skill an engineer can have is problem-solving. This is because engineering deals with finding solutions to everyday problems. Whether it is designing an F1 race car or a spoon, engineering requires testing and analysis. Almost all the objects you see around you, need engineering skills to design and create. Most aeronautical and automobile processes need aerodynamic analysis to function. So, how do engineers make sure they have the proper data and results after an analysis? Most engineers use software tools to run the aerodynamic and fluid-related analysis. In this article, we will be taking a look at one such useful tool that engineers use to compute fluid properties also some final year mechanical projects on CFD.

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What is CFD?

CFD is a software tool that allows engineers to solve fluid flow problems. These scenarios may be either with or without solid particle interaction. In a CFD analysis, fluid flow is analysed based on its physical properties. These include velocity, density, viscosity, pressure and temperature. To get an accurate solution, engineers need to consider all these factors simultaneously. The physical case is mathematically modelled into a numerical solution using this tool. For example, the system tracks the variables after defining the Navier-Stokes equations. The system then analyses the fluid flow and heat transfer. Following this, the system calculates a mathematical model that describes the system. This analysis depends on the process structure of the scenario. Once created, the system needs must be verified, to generate an accurate solution.

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History of CFD

Up until the 1990’s scientists focused on creating accurate mathematical models of situations. They also worked on creating efficient numerical methods to best describe such systems. Between 1920 and 1940, these methods and models came together to create a complex mathematical system. The next decade witnessed the slow entry of computer-based calculations. Early computers such as the ENIAC 3 worked on flow-related fluid problems. Fast forward another ten years, scientists began studying the Navier-Stokes equations using advanced computers. They then created instances of 2D and transient flow. The first seminal paper on CFD came out in 1967, and the technology started gaining momentum. By the 1970’s such code was being put to use to run and model submarines, automobiles and aircraft. From the 1990’s onwards, thanks to a large improvement in the performance capabilities of computers, CFD became an integral part of the engineering world.

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Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics

  • To determine whether the flow is Incompressible or Compressible flow
  • Eddy Simulation of flow around cylinders
  • To determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent
  • Creation of different turbulence models
  • Analysis of ball valves
  • Analysis of mass and thermal transport
  • Simulations involving smoke propagation
  • Creation of passive scalar transport and gas distributions
  • Running OpenFOAM solvers
  • Heat exchanger simulations

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Governing Equations of CFD

  1. Conservation of Mass as explained by the Continuity Equation
  2. Conservation of Momentum as per Newton’s Second Law
  3. Conservation of Energy as per the First Law of Thermodynamics

Important Physical Properties

  • Velocity v
  • Pressure p
  • Absolute temperature T

Other thermodynamics variables

  • Density ρ
  • Enthalpy h
  • Viscosity μ
  • Thermal conductivity k

Flow movement is analysed either by Lagrangian or Eulerian methods.

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Advantages of learning CFD for mechanical engineers

  • Helps mechanical engineers predict fluid flow, heat/mass/energy transfer occurring in fluids and devices
  • Assist in solving mathematical equations and numerical models that govern a particular real-world situation or process
  • Allows the accurate simulation of fluid flow around or through any product
  • Designers get to verify whether their products will conform to any particular specification
  • Helps in significantly accelerating the product development process
  • Unmatched insight into prototyping and testing of devices
  • Allows engineers to foresee the implications of design changes
  • Relatively low cost and hence, lower production costs
  • Helps mechanical engineers investigate fluid flows in challenging conditions

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Final year projects on CFD for mechanical students

Below are some useful final year projects on CFD for mechanical students:

1. Flow Simulation Shape Optimization of an Airfoil Design

This is a common project that will help students interested in the aerospace industry. Most problems that take place in the aerospace and aeronautical industry require very accurate flow modelling and simulation to solve. Aerodynamics is related to lift and the improvement of lift efficiency. Therefore, the shape of the aerofoil which makes lift possible is very important. In this final year mechanical project, students will use 

AcuSolve and validate real-life results on a standard NACA airfoil.

2. Flow Simulation and Wind tunnel Experiment of Cricket ball

The presence of a stream can greatly change or vary the aerodynamic properties of a cricket ball. In this interesting CFD project, students will look at how to seam placement, surface roughness and launch attitude change flow properties. Therefore, this mechanical project will help students understand the aerodynamic properties of cricket balls which have undergone wear and tear using CFD analysis.

3. Numerical Solution and Visualization of Two Blast Wave Interaction

It isn’t always possible to create life-sized replicas to test engineering devices for physical experiments. Therefore, we run simulations and tests to replicate real-life scenarios and then analyse those test results to redesign the component. In this final year project, students will solve a one-dimensional interacting blast wave problem using the Finite Volume Method.

4. CFD using Ansys Fluent Course

This CFD course for mechanical engineers will help generate numerical simulations for fluid flow problems. It also helps in understanding the basic working of the software. It also assists students in understanding how to take decisions during product improvement. It is a great introductory course for mechanical engineers using Ansys Fluent for the first time. By the end, students will be able to work with preprocessing tools such as SpaceClaim and Mesher. It also introduces users to concepts such as boundary conditions and meshing strategies.

5. CFD Explorer using Ansys Fluent

This CFD course for Mechanical engineers will help students understand how fluids move and behave. It also serves as an introductory course to CFD and FEA. This mechanical project will also help students with boundary condition setting and basic finite element method. It also helps in understanding the concepts related to species transfer and multiple frame references.

6. CFD Champion using Ansys Fluent

This advanced CFD course for mechanical engineers will help students understand more advanced concepts related to fluid dynamics. This CFD project will take students through various features and modules of Ansys fluent, which is one of the most popular tools used in CFD analysis. This project will help users solve projects related to combustion chambers, surface chemistry and heat transfer. Furthermore, mechanical students will also understand the inner workings of Battery modeling.

You can also check out the following list for more CFD projects:

  • Flow analysis in gutters and downpipes
  • Analysis of temperature distribution and airflow in buildings using ANSYS
  • Analysis of convergent flow using ANSYS
  • CFD analysis of symmetrical airfoil using Acu solve
  • Analysis of Room air flow using CFD
  • CFD analysis of Radial Turbine
  • CFD analysis of Ship Hull forms
  • Simulation of SI engine
  • Hydrofoil analysis using CFD
  • Design and analysis of dust collector using CFD

Explore all the CFD projects

What is CFD? Final Year Projects on CFD
Skyfi Labs Last Updated: 2022-05-14

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