C++ is a widely-used programming language used to create high-performance applications. It is used to program computers, develop browsers, Operating systems, game development and many more. In this C++ project, we will discuss OOP’s, Inheritance and Polymorphism.
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What is OOP? - Object-Oriented Programming
Unlike procedural programming which writes functions or procedures that executes operations on the data, object-oriented programming is about constructing objects that include both functions and data. OOP is fast and easy to execute and it provides a clear structure for the programs. It breaks the complex problems into smaller problems using objects.
OOP’s make it easier to maintain, modify and debug the code as it keeps the code DRY - “Don’t Repeat Yourself”.
In OOP’s the programs are written using objects and classes with the help of OOP’s features - encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction.
Characteristics of OOPs:
Class: It is the building block of C++ that leads to OOP. It is like a blueprint for an object. It is a user-defined data type that accommodates its member function and data members and can be obtained by creating an example of that class.
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For example - Take a pack of cars and in that pack, there may be different types of cars from different brands but all they share some similarities like the same number of wheels, mileage range, speed limit, etc. Here the car is class and speed limit, wheels, range, etc. are their properties.
In simple words, Class is a blueprint that represents a collection of objects which shares some common behaviours and properties.
Objects: Object is an identifiable item with some behaviour and characteristics. Objects have the authority to interact with other data and code without having any details. When a code is executed, the object communicates by sending messages to one another. For defining a class no memory is allocated but memory is allocated as soon as it is initiated.
Encapsulation: In OOP, encapsulation combines the data and information under an individual unit. For easy understanding, you can take a capsule as an example where different medicines are wrapped together.
Polymorphism: Polymorphism means many forms, Using polymorphism you can perform one task in many different ways. For example, you can use polymorphism to draw shapes like triangle, rectangle, etc.
Abstraction: Data abstraction is a technique that depends on the separation of implementation and interface. It represents only the required information in a program without presenting the details.
Inheritance: It is one of the most important concepts in OOP. It helps to define a class in the name of another class, that paves the way to make and create applications easily.
These are the C++ OOPs concepts that are used to make the program with less number of code. You can develop C++ projects using OOPs concepts instead of procedural programming to manage the written code easily.
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