Civil Engineering

Adsorption of Fluoride Using Nanoparticles of Aluminium Oxide

Fluoride is the element that is naturally found in minerals, rock sediments, and geological deposits, it is named as “double-edged sword” due to the inadequacy of this element in the human body causes dental caries, whereas if intake is more than it leads to dental, skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. According to the latest research, about 25 countries around the globe shows that fluorosis is endemic. In 1993 UNICEF identified 15 states in India as endemic for fluorosis.

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Fluorosis is not curable. The only way to prevent fluorosis is supplying the drinking water with optimum content of fluoride. The permissible limit for the concentration of fluoride in drinking water as per Indian standards (IS 10500) is 1 – 1.5 mg/L. This standard limit for fluoride revokes us to develop more different methods that are efficient and make the water consumable. 

At present, the methods for removing the fluoride from water are of 3 different categories they are adsorption, membrane-based methods, and precipitation depending on the removal process of fluoride. The membrane-based and chemical methods for defluorination are uneconomical and have problems such as huge disposal of sludge and therefore they are not recommended. Adsorption is globally accepted as a suitable technique for defluorination due to its availability of the raw materials (absorbents) for processing and simplicity in nature. Many studies have done around the world with different materials such as aluminium hydroxide, clay-based composites, activated alumina, etc. However, use of these materials is not so successful for the removal of fluoride due to low efficiency and high cost. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify and study the materials with high removal efficiency.

Surface area is a key factor that influences the adsorption to a larger extent higher the surface area of adsorbent, higher will be its adsorbing capacity. This makes nano absorbents best for water treatment. Nanoscale materials due to their smaller size (<100 nm) can provide a larger surface area required for efficient adsorption. These nano materials when used in water treatment are highly efficient but these may not be economical in large scale operation and the removal of nanomaterials from water is difficult.

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Following are the chemical used in this project:

  1. Aluminium sulfate
  2. Potassium aluminium sulfate
  3. Calcium Oxide

Project Implementation:

  1. Collect the water sample and test it for fluoride content.
  2. Take the chemicals Aluminium sulphate, Potassium aluminium sulphate and lime (calcium oxide).
  3. Mix them with the water sample which has fluoride content. Rapidly mix the water with these chemicals.
  4. This forms into the solution of aluminium hydroxide.
  5. After forming of aluminium hydroxide gently stir it and allow it to settle down.
  6. Test the water after separating it from the settled solid particles.


  • Raw materials are easily available
  • This process is easy when compared to other techniques.


  • This process needs regular attention as it is not automatic.
  • The solid waste which is obtained at last needs treatment before disposal.
  • The treated water is not good to taste.

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Water is a vital resource for living organisms on earth. We cannot expect a life without water. Fluoride is a leading groundwater impurity which is hard-to-eliminate and it is a global issue and we cannot remove the total concentration of the fluoride in the water as it is a vital element for bone and tooth, but the surplus amount is undesirable.

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Adsorption of Fluoride Using Nanoparticles of Aluminium Oxide
Skyfi Labs Last Updated: 2022-05-18

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