Earthquake-resistant structures are structures designed to protect buildings from earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage from earthquakes, the goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to erect structures that fare better during seismic activity than their conventional counterparts. According to building codes, earthquake-resistant structures are intended to withstand the largest earthquake of a certain probability that is likely to occur at their location.Currently, there are several design philosophies in earthquake engineering, making use of experimental results, computer simulations and observations from past earthquakes to offer the required performance for the seismic threat at the site of interest.
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2. Structural & Foundation Analysis
3. CPM & BIM
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These range from appropriately sizing the structure to be strong and ductile enough to survive the shaking with an acceptable damage. The conventional approach to earthquake resistant design of buildings depends upon providing the building with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity which are great enough to withstand a given level of earthquake-generated force. This is generally accomplished through the selection of an appropriate structural configuration and the careful detailing of structural members, such as beams and columns, and the connections between them. But more advanced techniques for earthquake resistance is not to strengthen the building, but to reduce the earthquake-generated forces acting upon it.
Among the most important advanced techniques of earthquake resistant design and construction are:
2.Energy Dissipation Devices
A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads which are placed between the building and the building’s foundation. A variety of different types of base isolation bearing pads have now been developed.The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction.
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The second of the major new techniques for improving the earthquake resistance of buildings also relies upon damping and energy dissipation, but it greatly extends the damping and energy dissipation provided by lead-rubber bearings. As we’ve said, a certain amount of vibration energy is transferred to the building by earthquake ground motion. Buildings themselves do possess an inherent ability to dissipate, or damp, this energy. However, the capacity of buildings to dissipate energy before they begin to suffer deformation and damage is quite limited. The building will dissipate energy either by undergoing large scale movement or sustaining increased internal strains in elements such as the building’s columns and beams. Both of these eventually result in varying degrees of damage. So, by equipping a building with additional devices which have high damping capacity, we can greatly decrease the seismic energy entering the building, and thus decrease building damage. Accordingly, a wide range of energy dissipation devices have been developed and are now being installed in real buildings. Energy dissipation devices are also often called damping devices. The large number of damping devices that have been developed can be grouped into three broad categories: Friction Dampers: these utilize frictional forces to dissipate energy Metallic Dampers : utilize the deformation of metal elements within the damper Viscoelastic Dampers : utilize the controlled shearing of solids Viscous Dampers: utilized the forced movement (orificing) of fluids within the dampe
1.Base-isolation are designed in buildings . It is a building designed to reduce amount of energy that reaches the building during earthquake. 2.Flexible joints and automatic shut off valves can be installed. Protecting Against Earthquake Damage Prepare a Seismic Risk Map for the globe which identifies rock types, liquefaction potential, landslide potential. Extensive geological surveying has to be done to identify all active faults, including hidden faults. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Enact building codes to design and build earthquake-resistant structures in high seismic risk areas. wood, steel and reinforced concrete are preferred as they tend to move with the shaking ground (unreinforced concrete and heavy masonry tend to move independently and in opposition to the shaking, battering one another until the structure collapses)
In addition to the main earthquake design code 1893 the BIS(Bureau of Indian Standards)has published other relevant earthquake design codes for earthquake resistant construction Masonry structures (IS-13828 1993) • Horizontal bands should be provided at plinth ,lintel and roof levels as per code • Providing vertical reinforcement at important locations such as corners, internal and external wall junctions as per code. • Grade of mortar should be as per codes specified for different earthquake zones. • Irregular shapes should be avoided both in plan and vertical configuration. • Quality assurance and proper workmanship must be ensured at all cost without any compromise. In RCC framed structures (IS-13920) • In RCC framed structures the spacing of lateral ties should be kept closer as per the code • The hook in the ties should be at 135 degree instead of 90 degree for better anchoragement. • The arrangement of lateral ties in the columns should be as per code and must be continued through the joint as well.Kit required to develop Learn About Advanced Earthquake Resistant Techniques:
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