Designing of Hydrogen Fuel car

Fuel cell are devices which convert chemical energy into electrical energy. This energy is used in hybrid cars to power up the motor. A fuel cell operates with some gaseous or liquid material as an input quantity.

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Normally the principle of combination of operation of the internal combustion engine is that it uses the power that can be solely from one source and can be the combination of two sources. Modern hybrid cars use the fuel cell as well. Both from the point of view of global warming and from that of the inevitable exhaustion of Earth's oil reserves, it has become highly desirable to develop an alternative energy source for automobiles. Since the development of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is fuelled by hydrogen and oxygen (air) and produces only water, hydrogen has generally been seen to be the most promising approach. At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, usually hydrogen, turning hydrogen into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. An electrolyte is a substance specifically used to pass the ions through them but the electrons should not do the same. The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the electronic current. Liquid hydrogen can be stored on board the vehicle, as has been demonstrated by BMW who have produced a limited series of cars fueled in this way.

Project Requirements:

For designing this system, we will require a strong understanding how the hydrogen will behave in controlled environments how can it used as a fuel and as the pressure and temperature changes in the vehicle how will that affect the fuel tanks containing hydrogen. Once this is understood what all changes will be required in the vehicle to make this feasible.

  • Chemical Equation: before starting we should know the general fuel cell reaction and at the end what kind of fuel we are using from it what will the emission for CO should be determined.

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  • Hydrogen Estimate: the equation for hydrogen estimate that will be used in fuel should be known.
  • Fuel Consumption: it will be based on volume and pressure of hydrogen gas for desired system.
  • inverter: it is needed to power up the motors using the DC supply.
  • Cooling System: required for cooling of batteries as well as for the system.

Project Implementation:

The important design features in this fuel cell car are the anode catalyst that will break the fuel down into electrons and ions generally made of fine platinum powder and cathode catalyst made of nickel but it can be a Nanomaterial-based catalyst. First, we have to neutralize the CO produced due to the fuel cells which is toxic. Now we have to determine the steam to carbon ration to estimate the reactants in the reaction which in turn will help to determine the hydrogen yield in the system. Based on the these the estimation of hydrogen to gasoline will be decided and using the above data we can determine the fuel consumption in terms of km/kg now we know the volume of the gas tank so much fuel can be stored in the vehicle can be easily determined and we can understand from that how much kilometers the vehicle will run at full tank. The regulated pressure that needs to be maintained in a fuel tank will be calculated using the ideal gas equation. Once the tank size pressure and fuel consumption are calculated we can determine the maximum power that will be generated from the vehicle this power will again be converted into electricity and for that we will be requiring two converters one will be used to when the fuel stack is full voltage to be less than 24V and then a boost converter to step down the voltage. This output will be paralleled with battery to produce the smooth running without failure.

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Designing of Hydrogen Fuel car
Skyfi Labs Last Updated: 2022-05-19

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