Performance analysis of paraffin wax,bees wax and magnesium for hybrid rocket motor

A Hybrid rocket is the combination of solid and liquid propellant. In most common cases solid-state fuel is used and the oxidizer used is in the liquid or gaseous state. The Hybrid rocket is a kind of safe propulsion and low cost when compared to the solid and liquid propellant rockets. The solid propellant and liquid or gaseous oxidizer are stored separately. The oxidizer is passed over the solid fuel through the injector and then combustion takes place and the hot gases exhausted through the nozzle.

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Performance analysis of paraffin wax,bees wax and magnesium for hybrid rocket motor project Looking to build projects on Mechanical?:

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Advantage of Hybrid Rocket:

When compared to a solid and liquid propellant rocket, recharging and reusing of a hybrid rocket is easy, malfunctioning and accidents can be rectified easily, decreasing the speed is possible by regulating the oxidizer supply. Easy start, stop and restart is possible in the hybrid rocket. Hybrid rockets have a high specific impulse and exhaust product is also non-toxic. It can be operated in safe mode with low-cost characteristic. It is simpler than a solid and liquid propellant rocket.

Project Description:

  • Purpose of Paraffin Wax: The rate that fuel will burn is 3-5 times as high as the classic polymeric fuels (including HTPB) enabling efficient, single-port designs. The fuel is non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, non-hazardous and environmental-friendly. The by-products of the combustion of the new fuel are carbon dioxide and water. Paraffin based fuels are inexpensive, typically one to two orders of magnitude less than solid propellants.
  • Purpose of Beeswax: The testing of beeswax with oxygen as the oxidizer has shown an oxidizer to fuel ratio at least three times as high as a hybrid propellant combination. This overcomes the main weakness of hybrid rocket motor propellants, which are having low oxidizer to fuel ratio.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium is a grey-white lightweight metal, two-thirds the density of Aluminum. It has a melting point of 920K and a boiling point of 1360K. It reacts with water at room temperature.
  • Fuel Grain Preparation: Fuel is prepared by melting Paraffin wax and beeswax using Hot plate. After the wax is liquefied, Magnesium is added on constant stirring. The mixture is further heated so as to attain uniformity, without allowing it to cool, the mixture is then poured into a cylindrical tube, which is then allowed to cool down at room temperature. After the solidification of fuel, it is taken out of the tube making it a cylindrical fuel grain. The same procedure is carried out to make a tubular fuel grain.

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            Mass of Paraffin wax = 40.086g

            Mass of Bees wax      = 20.082g

            Mass of Magnesium   = 40.006g

            Length of fuel grain    = 80mm

            Outer diameter of the fuel grain = 21.5mm

            Inner diameter of the fuel grain = 6.2mm

            Chemical formula of Paraffin wax = C25H52

            Chemical formula of Bees wax      = C15H31COOC30H61

       Chemical equation for the above-mentioned mixture:

0.11 C25H52 + 0.03C15H31COOC30H61 + 1.65Mg + 9.23O2 ------> 4.16CO2 + 8.54H2O +1.65MgO                                    


  • Formation of chemical equation.
  • Preparation of propellant.
  • Testing of propellant.
  • Designing of Nozzle.

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Construction of propellant hybrid rocket motor using the mixture of Paraffin wax, Beeswax, and Magnesium as a fuel, Gaseous Oxygen as an oxidizer and regression rate with the conventional bio-derived fuel is compared.

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Performance analysis of paraffin wax,bees wax and magnesium for hybrid rocket motor
Skyfi Labs Last Updated: 2021-03-04

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